ActiveSand®, an encapsulated version of ActiveEOR®, is used for hydraulic fracturing operations to increase production and produce cleaner flowback water.
ActiveSand® can be introduced in advance of the proppant load to extend fracturing or be mixed-in with the proppant load to aid in transport. After injection, the material reacts with formation water at the point of fracture and rapidly release heat, hydrogen gas and an alkali silicate. Using 100,000 pounds of ActiveSand® (at 10,000 psi and 100oC) will generate 8,800 ft3 of additional fracture space. To augment a typical job, the application might employ anywhere from a few hundred thousand to several million pounds of ActiveSand®.
The alkali silicate that is generated during the reaction also works to reduce the multivalent cations typically found in flowback water. Studies show that after introduction of ActiveSand®, nearly all detectable multivalent cations (Ba, Ca, Fe, Sr, Mg, Mn) are completely removed from the flowback water. This reduction in multivalent cations can make water reuse and disposal easier and less costly. In many regions, it may reduce environmental concerns about heavy metals or NORM in flowback water.
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